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Danfoss


 

Why choose Danfoss drives for mine and mineral processing environments?

 

With our wide range of AC drives and a broad choice of supporting options we can match your specific requirements. The compact enclosures and robust design of our drives with built-in long motor cable capability, innovative heat management and other mine-site-relevant features can help you optimize your panel, switchboard, switchroom or substation design, saving costs and improving your competitive position.

Intelligent heat management for significantly lower switchroom costs

With the increasing use of AC drives to efficiently control equipment on mine sites, the heat loads in
switchrooms from those drives are demanding larger and more expensive air-conditioning systems. However, the unique back-channel cooling design of higher power VLT® drives and availability of VACON® liquidcooled drives can result in significantly reduced heat loads in switchrooms, enabling the use of smaller, lower-cost air-conditioning systems.

 

VLT® drives rated 90 kW and higher incorporate an innovative back-channel cooling design. There are separate cooling paths for the power components and control electronics, separated by an IP54 seal. The back-channel cooling removes approximately 85% of the power loss directly through the heatsink, leaving only 15% of the total loss to be dissipated in the switchroom. Although separate cooling paths themselves are not innovative, the innovation in our VLT® drives comes from ensuring they are separated by an IP54 seal and making it easy to duct outside air into and out of the back-channel air path.

     

Reduced heat load in switchrooms.

When outside air quality on the mine site is suitable, using the heatsink cooling fans and appropriate mounting and ducting, filtered external air at temperatures up to 50 degrees C can be used to exhaust approximately 85% of the heat loss from the VLT® drive. The heat loss can easily be exhausted directly outside the switchroom with no effect on the switchroom pressurization. The switchroom airconditioningsystem only needs to be sized for the remaining 15% heat losses into the switchroom.

 

Compact enclosures reduce project costs

The compact size of VLT® and VACON® drives, both designed as standard for long motor cables without requiring additional options, often means smaller switchrooms can be built, providing opportunities for significant switchroom cost savings. Ask us, to find out how contractors and mining companies have saved significant project and operating costs through the use of these innovative design features.

 

Applications

 

No matter how well you have optimized your plant design, there is always a way to drive down costs even further. AC drives are used extensively for just that purpose, extending equipment lifetime, optimizing processes, reducing maintenance and saving energy costs.

The mining and minerals industry presents some of the most challenging environments for production. Mine sites, mineral processing facilities and associated stockyards and port facilities are large scale and often in remote locations.

  • Long conveyors
  • Stockpile reclaim feeders
  • Borehole pumps
  • Stacker/reclaimer
  • Conveyors
  • Ship loader
  • Dewatering pump skids
  • Thickeners (pinion drives, feed, overflow and underflow (slurry) pumps)
  • Ball mills; flotation cells; apron feeders, conveyors, slurry pumps (e.g. transfer pumps, feed pumps, concentrate pumps, tailings pumps); process water pumps
  • Train unloader
  • Excavator
 
  • Tripper car
  • Train loadout conveyor
  • Slurry pumps; process water feed pumps; dosing pumps; filters
  • Primary ventilation fans
  • Underground conveyors
  • Booster fans
  • Crusher
  • Slurry pumps (e.g. cyclone feed pumps; transfer pumps; thickenerunderflow pumps); feeders; screens
  • Stacker
  • River water pumps
  • Underground mines Mine ventilation fans Conveyors Pumps Winders

Robust mine ventilation

Ensuring reliable ventilation of the mine is paramount for the health and safety of workers in the underground mine. This is necessary to ensure particulates from diesel engines are adequately diluted, for example. Ventilation operating costs are often a significant proportion of the total electrical energy costs on site, and being able to ventilate in the most efficient manner saves significant operating costs.

AC drives are well recognized to be the most flexible, energy-efficient, low maintenance method for controlling mine ventilation fans. They are used to control the air flow of main ventilation fans on the surface as well as auxiliary ventilation and booster fans underground, and can be easily integrated into Ventilation on Demand (VOD) control systems.

Both VLT® and VACON® drives incorporate a number of features that make them especially suitable for mine ventilation fan applications. These ensure reliable operation of the fan even in abnormal operating conditions and the optimum use of energy

Long conveyor capability

Smoothly controlling the acceleration and deceleration of long conveyors reduces mechanical stress through all drive-train components and within the conveyor belt itself. This leads to longer lifetime for the belt and other drive components, increasing asset availability and lowering maintenance and operating costs. Having the flexibility to control the speed of long conveyors can help optimize the complete system, reduce bottlenecks and maximize the efficiency of a material flow process, resulting in operating cost savings.

Maximize belt life It’s common practice to install multiple motors on long conveyors and the drives need to ensure load sharing between each motor for reliable operation and to maximize belt life.

 

VLT® and VACON® drives include both Master-Master and Master-Follower control solutions for this. Selection of the control solution depends on the configuration of the conveyor drives on the conveyor (for example, all drives at the head end or drives at both the head and tail end).

They are both easy to implement and have proven to be robust, reliable solutions for long conveyors.

Bulk handling For downhill conveyors, where continuous regenerative braking operation is typically required, an Active Front End (AFE) drive or alternatively a regenerative drive panel solution, using a standard 6-pulse drive with separate regenerative module, is the best solution.

 

VLT® and VACON® drives are used extensively on many long conveyors in excess of 1-km length, which are common on bulk material applications on mine sites, processing plants and port facilities such as:.

  • Run-of-mine (ROM) bin feeder conveyors
  • Stockyards
  • Train loadout conveyors
  • Pipe conveyors
  • Long overland conveyors
 
 

VLT® Drives

The VLT® AutomationDrive FC 302, VLT® AQUA Drive FC 202 and VLT® HVAC Drive FC 102 are all built on the same modular platform, allowing for highly-customized drives that are mass-produced, fully-tested, and delivered from our factories.

As standard they are designed to operate reliably with up to at least 150m screened or 300 m unscreened cable lengths, with no need for additional output filters. They include a built-in DC link choke harmonic filter and can be configured with built-in RFI filters, providing different levels of EMC performance as required. Compliance with the most commonly specified international EMC standard for mining and mineral processing facilities, IEC 61800-3 Category C3, with 150m screened cable, is standard.

Their robust design ensures that as standard they are suitable for installation in harsh environments as defined by IEC 60721-3-3 Class 3C2 and are available with an optional, higher grade PCB coating, making them suitable for installation in even harsher, Class 3C3, environments of that standard. With only a few exceptions, all drive sizes are designed for operation at their full nominal current ratings in ambient temperatures up to 500C (high overload) and 450C (normal overload) without derating.

The back-channel cooling feature for powers ≥90 kW (high overload) / 110 kW (normal overload) has proven to save significant initial and ongoing operating costs on mining projects across the globe.

Additional harmonic mitigation
12-pulse versions or low harmonic drive versions, incorporating a parallel-connected advanced active filter (AAF) in the same enclosure as the drive, are available as well as standalone AAFs for central compensation of harmonics and passive Advanced Harmonic Filters (AHF) for installation on the input of a drive.

 

VLT® AutomationDrive FC 302

Used extensively for all mining and mineral processing equipment applications and on stockyards and bulk material handling facilities, VLT® AutomationDrive FC 302 ensures optimal operation of all equipment, including conveyors, feeders, crushers, mills, screens, slurry pumps, flotation cells, paste thickeners, ship loaders, stackers, reclaimers, and more.

 

VLT® AQUA Drive FC 202

Used on mine sites and mineral processing plants, VLT® AQUA Drive controls all types of pumps, including centrifugal pumps (with quadratic loads) and displacement and screw pumps (with constant torque load). On mine sites VLT® AQUA Drive is commonly used for mine de-watering pumps and borehole pump applications, often installed outdoors on pump skids or next to borehole pumps, with appropriate enclosures providing protection from the weather and shading from the sun. Pump protection functions are built in and the Automatic Energy Optimization function ensures the motor, not only the pump, is operating at its best efficiency point.

 

VLT® HVAC Drive FC 102

Used to control the air flow of main ventilation fans on the surface as well as auxiliary ventilation and booster fans underground, VLT® HVAC Drive can be easily integrated into Ventilation on Demand (VOD) control systems. Built-in functions ensure reliable, continued operation of the fan even in abnormal operating conditions. The Automatic
Energy Optimization function improves the overall efficiency of the drive and motor combined at all loads and speeds, resulting in lower operating costs and the optimum use of energy. Efficiency gains of >0.5% for the total system (switchroom + AC drive + motor + fan) are common compared to other “standard” AC drives. And as main ventilation fans are high energy users, an improvement in total efficiency of just 0.5% translates to significant operating cost savings.

 

VACON® Drives

The broad range of VACON® NXP drives provides solutions no matter what type of AC drive you need. Air cooled or liquid cooled, wall mounted or floor standing, bottom or top cable entry, 6-pulse, 12-pulse or Active Front End (AFE) are just some of the options possible.

As standard they are designed to operate reliably with up to 300m cable lengths (power size dependent), without the need for any additional output fi lters. They include an AC choke harmonic filter and can be confi gured with built in RFI filters providing diff erent levels of EMC performance as required, including compliance with the most commonly specified international EMC standard for mining and mineral processing facilities, IEC 61800-3 Category C3.

Active Front End (AFE) versions of the VACON® NXC and AFE modules combined with separate Inverter Unit (INU) modules provide solutions for regenerative applications and when low harmonic current distortion is required. The VACON® 100 INDUSTRIAL drives are designed to operate reliably with up to 200m cable lengths (power size dependent), include a built in DC link choke harmonic fi lter and include a built in RFI filter ensuring compliance with at least IEC 61800-3 Category C3.

The built in PLC functionality according to IEC61131-3 of both the VACON® NXP and VACON® 100 enables OEMs to integrate their own functionality in the drives.

 

VACON® NXP and
VACON® NXC Air Cooled

Used extensively for all mining and mineral processing equipment applications
and on stockyards and bulk material handling facilities including conveyors, feeders, crushers, mills, screens, slurry pumps, fl otation cells, paste thickeners, ship loaders, stackers, reclaimers, mine ventilation fans, dewatering pumps, and more.

 

VACON® NXP IP00
drive modules

These compact drive modules with separate AC chokes and separate front end and inverter unit modules for higher powers are ideally suited for applications where drives need to be built into low height enclosures as is often common on underground coal mine motor starter skids. Complemented by a comprehensive range of air cooled VACON® NXP common DC bus modules and VACON® NXP liquid cooled drives and modules, there really isn’t a tight space or harsh environment where we can’t provide you an AC drive that meets your needs.

 

VACON® 100 INDUSTRIAL

The VACON® 100 INDUSTRIAL is a workhorse for a wide range of industrial applications. It is easy to integrate into all major control systems and is easily adaptable to diff erent needs. All power sizes are available as drive modules. The free-standing enclosed drive version for higher power sizes contains a wide range of confi gurable options and an innovative control compartment
for safe access, without opening the cabinet door.

 

Harmonics Mitigation

While AC drives help optimize production, save energy and extend equipment lifetime, they also introduce harmonic currents to the mine-site grid. If not kept under control, these harmonics can affect the performance and reliability of generators and other equipment..

Harmonics Mitigation Solutions

  ADVERSE EFFECTS OF HARMONICS

Reliable estimation of the harmonic impact of AC drives on the mine site electrical system, combined with the use of the optimum mitigation equipment, helps plants avoid the hidden and often expensive consequences of harmonic distortion.

All VLT® and VACON® drives supplied for mine site installations incorporate a DC link choke or AC choke, first level, harmonic filter as standard. If required, additional harmonic filters and other harmonic mitigation solutions, as well as software tools for calculating harmonic mitigation requirements are also available.

Danfoss Drives has developed a wide range of mitigation solutions which can help restore weak networks, increase network capacity, and meet compact retrofit demands or secure sensitive environments:

  • Advanced active filters
  • Advanced harmonic filters
  • Low harmonic drives
  • AFE low harmonic drives
  • 12-pulse drives
 
  1. Limitations on supply
    and network utilization
  2. Increased transformer,
    motor and cable heating
  3. Reduced equipment lifetime
  4. Costly equipment downtime
  5. Control system malfunctions
  6. Pulsating and
    reduced motor torque
  7. Audible noise
 

A better tomorrow is driven by drives

Danfoss Drives is a world leader in variable speed control of electric motors. We offer you unparalleled competitive edge through quality, application-optimized products and a comprehensive range of product lifecycle services.

 

You can rely on us to share your goals. Striving for the best possible performance in your applications is our focus. We achieve this by providing the innovative products and application know-how required to optimize efficiency, enhance usability, and reduce complexity. From supplying individual drive components to planning and delivering complete drive systems; our experts are ready to support you all the way.

You will find it easy to do business with us. Online, and locally in more than 50 countries, our experts are never far away, reacting fast when you need them. You gain the benefit of decades of experience, since 1968. Our low voltage and medium voltage AC drives are used with all major motor brands and technologies in power sizes from small to large.

 

VACON® drives combine innovation and high durability for the sustainable industries of tomorrow.

For long lifetime, top performance, and full-throttle process throughput, equip your demanding process industries and marine applications with VACON® single or system drives.

  • Marine and Offshore
  • Oil and Gas
  •  Metals
  • Mining and Minerals
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Energy
  • Elevators and Escalators
  • Chemical
  • Other heavy-duty industries
 

VLT® drives play a key role in rapid urbanization through an uninterrupted cold chain, fresh food supply, building comfort, clean water and environmental protection.

Outmanoeuvring other precision drives, they excel, with remarkable fit, functionality and diverse connectivity.

  • Food and Beverage
  • Water and Wastewater
  • HVAC
  • Refrigeration
  • Material Handling
  • Textile